Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire
By Drusilla Dunjee Houston, 1926 [Edited]
This is a pioneering, long-lost, work of Afrocentric history. Drusilla Dunjee Houston, (1876-1941) was a teacher, journalist and self-taught historian. Houston undertook a life-long quest to discover African history from an African-American perspective. However, at the time that Houston wrote, history was viewed through a Eurocentric perspective.
CHAPTER II. OLD ETHIOPIA–ITS PEOPLE.
The Greeks looked to old Ethiopia and called the Upper Nile the common cradle of mankind. Toward the rich luxury of this region they looked for the “Garden of Eden.” From these people of the Upper Nile arose the oldest traditions and rites and from them sprang the first colonies and arts of antiquity. The Greeks also said that Egyptians derived their civilization and religion from Ethiopia. “Egyptian religion was not an original conception, for three thousand years ago she had lost all true sense of its real meaning among even the priesthood.” (Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection–Preface.) Yet Egyptian forms of worship are understood and practiced among the Ethiopians of Nubia today.
Ptolemaic writers said that modern Egypt was formed of the mud carried down, from Ethiopia, that Ethiopians were the first men that ever lived, the only truly autochthonous race and the first to institute the worship of the gods and the rites of sacrifice. Lower Egypt itself was a colony of Ethiopia and the laws and script of both lands were naturally the same; but the hieroglyphic script was more widely known to the vulgar in Ethiopia than in Lower Egypt. (Diodorus Siculus, bk. iii, ch. 3.) This knowledge of writing was universal in Ethiopia but was confined to the priestly classes alone in Lower Egypt. This was because the Egyptian priesthood was Ethiopian. The highly developed Merodic inscriptions are not found in Lower Egypt east of the Red Sea. These are differences we would expect to find between a colony and a parent body.
The Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, “There is every reason to conclude that the separate colonies of priestcraft spread from Meroe into [Lower] Egypt … the worship of Zeus-Ammon originated in Meroe, also the worship of Osiris. This would render highly probable the opinion that commerce, science and art descended into [Lower] Egypt from the Upper Nile.” Herodotus called the Ethiopians: ” Wisemen occupying the Upper Nile, men of long life, whose manners and customs pertain to the Golden Age, those virtuous mortals, whose feasts and banquets are honored by Jupiter himself.” In Greek times, the Lower Egyptians depicted Ethiopia as an ideal state.
The Puranas, the ancient historical books of India, speak of the civilization of Ethiopia as being older than that of Egypt. These Sanskrit books mention the names of old Cushite kings that were worshipped in India and who were adopted and changed to suit the fancy of the later people of Greece and Rome. The Hindu Puranas speak of the Cushites going to India before they went to Lower Egypt, proving Hindu civilization coeval with that of Chaldea and the country of the Nile. These ancients record that the Lower Egyptians were a colony drawn out from Cusha-Dwipa and that the Palli, another colony that made the Phoenicians followed them from the land of Cush.
In those prime days, the central seat of Ethiopia was not the Meroe of our day, which is very ancient, but a kingdom that preceeded it by many ages; that was called Meru. Lenormant spoke of the first men of the ancient world as “Men of Meru.” Sanskrit writers called Indra, chief god of the Hindu, king of Meru. He was deified and became the chief representative of the supreme being. Thus was primitive India settled by colonists from Ethiopia. Early writers said there was very little difference in the color or features of the people of the two countries. Ancient traditions told of the deeds of Deva Nahusha, another sovereign of Meru, who extended his empire over three worlds.
The lost literature of Asia Minor dealt with this extension of the Ethiopian domain. An old poem “Phrygia,” was a history of Dionysus, one of the most celebrated of the old Ethiopians. It was written in a very old language and character. He preceeded Menes by many ages. Baldwin says that the authentic books that would have given us the true history concerning him, perished long before the Hellenes. The Greeks of historical times distorted the story of Dionysus and converted him into their drunken god of wine. “They misconstrued and misused the old Cushite mythology, wherever they failed to understand it, and sought to appropriate it entirely to themselves.”
One of the poetical versions of the taking of Troy, on the coast of Asia Minor, was entitled “The Æthiops,” because the inhabitants of Troy, as we shall prove later, who fought so valiantly in the Trojan war, were Cushite Ethiopians. This version presented the conflict as an Lower Egyptian war.
In those early ages Lower Egypt was under Ethiopian domination. In proof of this fact, the Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, “Isaiah often mentions Ethiopia and Egypt in close political relations. In fine the name of Ethiopia chiefly stood as the name of the national and royal family of [Lower] Egypt. In the beginning [Lower] Egypt was ruled from Ethiopia. Ethiopia was ruined by her wars with [Lower] Egypt, which she sometimes subdued and sometimes served.”
Modern books contain but little information about the country of the Upper Nile, but archaic books were full of the story of the wonderful Ethiopians. The ancients said that they settled lower Egypt. Is it possible that we could know more about the origin of this nation than they? Reclus says, “The people occupying the plateau of the Blue Nile, are conscious of a glorious past and proudly call themselves Ethiopians.” He calls the whole triangular space between the Nile and the Red Sea, Ethiopia proper. This vast highland constituted a world apart. From it went forth the inspiration and light now bearing its fruit in the life of younger nations.
“How did the fame of her name permeate the terrible deserts that surrounded her: and even yet form an insuperable bar to all who approach. A great many nations distant and different from one another are called Ethiopians. Africa contains the greater number of them and a considerable tract in Asia was occupied by this race. The Ethiopians were distinguished from the other races by a very dark or completely black skin. ” (Heeren’s Historical Researches–Ethiopian Nations. Ch. 1, p. 46)
Existing monuments confirm the high antiquity of Meru. Even in the Persian period, Ethiopia was an important and independent state. Rosellini thinks that the right of Sabaco and Tirhakah, Ethiopian kings, who sat upon the throne of Lower Egypt in the latter days, must have been more by right of descent than by usurpation or force of arms. “This may be judged,” he says, “by the respect paid to their monuments by their successors.”
The pictures on the Lower Egyptian monuments reveal that Ethiopians were the builders. They, not the Lower Egyptians, were the master-craftsmen of the earlier ages. The first courses of the pyramids were built of Ethiopian stone. The Cushites were a sacerdotal or priestly race. There was a religious and astronomical significance in the position and shape of the pyramids. Dubois points to the fact that in Upper Egypt there were pictured black priests who were conferring upon reddish Lower Egyptians, the instruments and symbols of priesthood.
Ethiopians in very early ages had an original and astounding religion (which included the rite of human sacrifice [check for medical operations]). It lingered on in the early life of Greece and Rome. Dowd explains this rite in this way: “The [Lower Egyptian] offered his nearest and dearest, not from depravity but from a greater love for the supreme being.” With the withdrawal of the Ethiopian priesthood from Lower Egypt, the people of the Lower Kingdom lost the sense of the real meaning of their religion, which steadily deteriorated with their language after their separation from Ethiopia.
If we visit Nubia, modern Ethiopia today, we can plainly see in the inhabitants their superiority to the common Lower Egyptian type. The Nubians are on a footing of perfect equality in Egypt because that was their plane in ancient days. Baedecker describes them as strong, muscular, agricultural and more warlike and energetic than Lower Egyptians. Keane says the Nubians excel in moral qualities. They are by his description obviously African, very dark with full lips and dreamy eyes. They have the narrow heads which are the cranial formation of Ethiopia. African race could be told by shape of the skull far better than by color or feature, which are modified by climate. The head of the Ethiopian races is very elongated. The members of the Tartar [?] race have perfectly rounded skulls. Europeans have an intermediate skull. The cranial formation of unmixed races never changes.
Strabo mentions the Nubians rejected the name Nubas as it has become synonymous with slave. They call themselves Barabra, their ancient race name. [Barabra used for Barbars/Berbers who took over above the Sahara desert, and Nubas changed to Nudas=Sudan. NBP] Sanskrit historians call the Old Race of the Upper Nile Barabra. They look like the Wawa on the Egyptian monuments. The Retu type number one was the ancient Upper Egyptian, the Retu type number two was in feature an intermingling of the Ethiopian and Lower Egyptian types. The Wawa were Cushites and the name occurs in the mural inscriptions five thousands years ago. Both people were much intermingled six thousand years ago. The faces of the Lower Egyptians of the Old Monarchy are Ethiopian but as the ages went on they altered from the constant intermingling with Asiatic types. Also the intense heat of Upper Egypt tended to change the features and darken the skin.
In the inscriptions relative to the campaigns of Pepi I, Africans are represented as immediately adjoining the Lower Egyptian frontier. This was the Old Race of predynastic Egypt–the prime Cushite type. This was also the aboriginal race of Abyssinia [outskirt of Lower Egypt].
Lower Kemet was symbolized by the Great
Sphinx HER EM AKHET and the marvelous face of Cheops. Take any book of Egyptian history containing authentic cuts and examine the faces of the first pharaohs, they are distinctively Ethiopian. The “Agu” of the monuments represented this aboriginal race. They were the ancestors of the Nubians. and were the ruling race of Upper and Lower Egypt. Petrie in 1892 exhibited before the British Association, some skulls of the Third and Fourth Dynasties, showing distinct African characteristics. They were dolichocephalic or long skulled. The findings of archaeology more and more reveal that even Lower Egypt was Cushite in her beginning and that Ethiopians were not a branch of the Japheth race.
Egyptians said that they and their religion had come from the land of Punt. Punt is generally accepted today to have been Somalia/Somaliland. On the pictured plates at Deir-el-Baheri, the huts of the people of Punt were like the Toquls of the modern Sudanese, being built on piles approached by ladders. The wife of the king of Punt appears with a form like the Bongo women with exaggerated organs of maternity. This was a distinctive Ethiopian form. The king had the Cushite profile.
Punt is mentioned in the inscriptions as a land of wonders. We find marvelous ruins that substantiate these reports. The inscription in the rocky valley of Hammat tells how 2000 B. C. a force gathered in the Thebaid to go on an expedition to Punt to bring back the products that made the costly incense of the ancients. The Stage Temple at Thebes showed in gorgeous pictures another expedition in 1600 B. C. We now know that Somalia/Somaliland yielded the frankincense of ancient commerce, which was used in the ceremonials of all ancient kingdoms. Punt was called the “Holy Land” by the Lower Egyptians.
In Upper Egypt today, the most effective battalions are those commanded by black Nubians. In ancient ages the Lower Egyptians followed the lead of the Ethiopian to battle and it is instinctive in them to do so today. Cushites were the backbone of the armies in the earliest ages. The Lower Egyptian had no warlike qualities. It was the Cushite element of the Old Empire that extended itself in foreign colonization around the world. Across Lower Egypt and southwestern Asia, even to the central highlands, inscriptions and massive images in stone stand as voiceless witnesses that they were the commanders of the Egyptian armies and that the Ethiopian masses accompanied the soldiers as trusted allies. In the early ages they were not a subject race but that their power as a great empire was at its zenith.
The Egyptian of today much changed from the ancient whom Herodotus called black. He is despised by the prouder Nubian, who saves his earnings to buy a home and piece of ground in his native Ethiopia. Reclus tells us that the dislike between Lower Egyptians and Nubians is carried to such a great extent that the Nubians will not marry an Egyptian woman and that he refuses his daughter in marriage to the Lower Egyptian and Arab. In books careless of ethnography, we find the Nubian classed with Semitic stock. Nubian women were seldom seen in Lower Egypt. They are the most faithful to the manners and customs of the Old Race. The Egyptian of today makes little showings of the spirit for great deeds. He squanders his earnings upon trinkets and seems content in the same hovel in which the masses of Lower Egyptians primitively lived.
Prichard recognizes two branches of the Nubians, the Nubians of the Nile and those of the Red Sea. In the age of Herodotus, the countries known as Nubia and Senaar [now Arabia] were occupied by two different races, one of which he includes under the name Ethiopian; the other was a pastorial race of Semitic decent which led a migratory life. This distinction continues to the present day. The Red Sea nomadic tribes are extremely savage and inhospitable.
The Nile Nubas or Barabra are the original Ethiopians. They are the Ethiopians mentioned in chronicles as possessing war chariots. Their allies were the Libyans. Semite Arabs at that age of the world had no possession of iron vehicles. Heeren says “that the ancestors of these Ethiopians had long lived in cities and had erected magnificent temples and edifices, that they possessed law and government, and that the fame of their progress in knowledge and the social arts had spread in the earliest ages to a considerable part of the world.”
[Note. Abyssinia in map above is Nubia. So far no other online-map shows the Ethiop Kingdoms on both sides of the Red Sea. This map is close enough. NBP]
[Bibble Note. Noah=Noach to ‘survive’ a flood with ‘his’ two two-sided sons: Shem=Chem=Cham (Ham)=Kam=Caan [Khan], and Japheth (Japha) =Jafet=Jabul=Abul [Bull]. War as Canaan (4th son and thus other side of Jafet) is made to serve both Cain (Shem=Cham) and Abel (Jafet). NBP]