In the mid-1960s, the oligarchy was still tenuously in charge of Panama’s political system. Members of the middle class, consisting largely of teachers and government workers, occasionally gained political prominence. Aspiring to upper-class stations, they failed to unite with the lower classes to displace the oligarchy. Students were the most vocal element of the middle class and the group most disposed to speak for the uneducated poor; as graduates, however, they were generally coopted by the system.
A great chasm separated the rural section from the urban population of the two major cities. Only the rural wageworkers, concentrated in the provinces of Bocas del Toro and Chiriquí, appeared to follow events in the capital and to express themselves on issues of national policy. Among the urban lower classes, antagonism between the Spanish speakers and the English- and French-speaking African American and African Caribbean people inhibited organization in pursuit of common interests. Continue reading →
The Drug trade and Jamaica’s national security
From Davor Bailey, 2013 (Edited)
In order to assess the notion that illegal drug trafficking or trade poses a security threat, we must first define what exactly illegal drug trade is and what security is.
The illegal drug trade is a global black market, dedicated to cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, and sale of those substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. (drugrehab.co.uk)
As for security, traditional realism views it purely in the military sense; however with the closer of the cold war, there as arisen some criticism to this view. What has occurred as a result is a shift from this narrow perception of security to a more multidimensional and expanded concept; what is known a neo-realism. Continue reading →
DEA’s Latin ‘takedown’ boosted by dubious figures
BY LENNY SAVINO, The Miami Herald, February 1, 2001
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico — The Drug Enforcement Administration used suspect figures to tout the success of a 36-nation “major takedown” of drug traffickers in the Caribbean and Latin America last fall, according to an examination of the operation.
The DEA’s scorecard on “Operation Libertador” reported 2,876 arrests, but agency officials could not provide evidence to support hundreds of them. Hundreds more were routine busts for marijuana possession, and some drug eradication figures were double-counts of a State Department program to burn marijuana plants. And while the DEA said $30.2 million in criminal assets were seized during Libertador, $30 million of that was confiscated four weeks before the operation began. Continue reading →
DEA Congressional Testimony
May 15, 2001 [Excerpt]
Statement by: Donnie R. Marshall
Drug Enforcement Administration
Before the: Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control
Date: May 15, 2001
Note: This document may not reflect changes made in actual delivery.
Chairman Grassley, Ranking Member Biden, distinguished members of the Caucus: I am pleased to have this opportunity to appear before you today to discuss DEA’s strategy and role in combating drugs moving through the Transit Zone destined for the United States.
DEA’s primary function as an investigative law enforcement agency is to identify and dismantle the world’s most sophisticated drug distribution organizations. DEA’s role in interdiction efforts is crucial since the intelligence gained from these operations often provides the information needed to unveil the depth and magnitude of a drug trafficking organization’s abilities and intentions. Continue reading →
THE MEMOIRS OF ABD-ALLAH AL-GHADEMISI OF KANO, 1903-1908. PART I: THE BRITISH CONQUEST OF KANO
By MUHAMMAD SANI UMAR AND JOHN HUNWICK, in: Sudanic Africa, 7, 1996, 61-96
These native servants are the quintessence of loyalty, and devotion, and as time goes on, I am to find out that without them Nigeria would have been untenable by the white man. – F.P. Crozier, Five Years Hard, London 1932, 72-3.
Some time in 1902 a young man named Abd-Allah arrived in Kano, ‘from the north’, presumably from Ghadames. We know nothing of the circumstances of his arrival, or of his ancestry. The document translated below is currently our only source of information on him. In it he describes himself as a ‘student’, but it is not clear in what sense he uses that term. There is no indication that he came to Kano to study, but we know that some years later he was acting as a clerk for his paternal uncles in Kano, who were evidently merchants.Continue reading →