A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing
Written by Victor E. Kappeler, Ph.D., Eastern Kentucky University
The birth and development of the American police can be traced to a multitude of historical, legal and political-economic conditions. The institution of slavery and the control of minorities, however, were two of the more formidable historic features of American society shaping early policing. Slave patrols and Night Watches, which later became modern police departments, were both designed to control the behaviors of minorities. For example, New England settlers appointed Indian Constables to police Native Americans (National Constable Association, 1995), the St. Louis police were founded to protect residents from Native Americans in that frontier city, and many southern police departments began as slave patrols.
In 1704, the colony of Carolina developed the nation’s first slave patrol. Slave patrols helped to maintain the economic order and to assist the wealthy landowners in recovering and punishing slaves who essentially were considered property. Continue reading →
Excerpt: ‘The Autobiography of Josiah Henson’
By Josiah Henson
I was born, June 15, 1789, in Charles County, Maryland, on a farm belonging to Mr. Francis N., about a mile from Port Tobacco. My mother was the property of Dr. Josiah McP., but was hired by Mr. N., to whom my father belonged. The only incident I can remember, which occurred while my mother continued on N.’s farm, was the appearance of my father one day, with his head bloody and his back lacerated. He was in a state of great excitement, and though it was all a mystery to me at the age of three or four years, it was explained at a later period, and I understood that he had been suffering the cruel penalty of the Maryland law for beating a white man. His right ear had been cut off close to his head, and he had received a hundred lashes on his back. He had beaten the overseer for a brutal assault on my mother, and this was his punishment. Furious at such treatment, my father became a different man, and was so morose, disobedient, and intractable, that Mr. N. determined to sell him. He accordingly parted with him, not long after, to his son, who lived in Alabama; and neither my mother nor I, ever heard of him again. He was naturally, as I understood afterwards from my mother and other persons, a man of amiable temper, and of considerable energy of character; but it is not strange that he should be essentially changed by such cruelty and injustice under the sanction of law. Continue reading →
Chicago Gangs and the “King Alfred Plan”
From Covert Book Report, 2013
Every now-and-then a dark secret is leaked in a novel or movie that exposes a subject so controversial that people think that it surely must be fiction. […] Here is where we travel down one such road; Senator Mark Kirk (R. Il.) has proposed an unthinkable and seemingly impossible plan to round up as many as 18,000 black men off the streets of Chicago and imprison them.
Raw Story reports: “Rep. Bobby Rush (D-IL) on Wednesday accused Illinois Sen. Mark Kirk (R) of proposing an “elitist white boy solution” to gang violence with his plan for the mass arrests of 18,000 gang members in Chicago.
Earlier on Wednesday, Kirk had joined with fellow Sen. Dick Durbin (D-IL) in calling on Illinois attorney general nominee Zachary Fardon to focus on street gangs and gun violence. But in an interview earlier this month, Kirk had gone even further with a plan to target members of the Continue reading →
In the event of widespread and continuing and coordinated racial disturbances in the United States, King Alfred, at the discretion of the President, is to be put into action immediately.
PARTICIPATING FEDERAL AGENCIES
National Security Council Department of Justice
Central Intelligence Agency Department of Defense
Federal Bureau of Investigation Department of Interior
PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES
(Under Federal Jurisdiction)
National Guard Units State Police
PARTICIPATING LOCAL AGENCIES
(Under Federal Jurisdiction)
City Police County Police
Memo: National Security Council
Even before 1954, when the Supreme Court of the United States of America declared unconstitutional separate educational and recreational facilities, racial unrest and discord had become very nearly a part of Continue reading →
“And with this knowledge we can change the world, if first we change ourselves.”
— Dr. John Henrik Clarke
First off, let me say that I applaud the zeal and dedication of those who organize juneteenth celebrations around the country. It is a commendable effort to educate our people about this aspect of our history in America. Having said, and at the risk of receiving universal condemnation from the Afrikan community, I humbly declare that these juneteenth celebrations are mis-guided and are based on false historical premises!
Juneteenth is a holiday in the state of Texas in recognition of the receipt by enslaved Afrikans who were the last to receive word on June 19, 1865, that they were allegedly freed via President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation signed January 1, 1863. There were approximately4 million enslaved Afrikans in America at the time. Since that time, Afrikans in Texas have allegedly celebrated Juneteenth, and it is now becoming a national celebration. However, this is a false celebration since there were still “approximately four million slaves (Afrikan Captives) in America” on January 2, 1864, one full year after Lincoln’s proclamation, according to courageous author and historian, Lerone Bennett, Jr., “Forced Into Glory: Abraham Lincoln’s White Dream.” Continue reading →
The Mysterious Death of Freddie Gray
By David A. Graham, Apr 22, 2015
When the Baltimore man was arrested, he was alive and well. By the time he reached a police station, he couldn’t breathe or talk. What happened?
Freddie Gray’s death on April 19 leaves many unanswered questions. But it is clear that when Gray was arrested in West Baltimore on the morning of April 12, he was struggling to walk. By the time he arrived at the police station a half hour later, he was unable to breathe or talk, suffering from wounds that would kill him.*
Gray died Sunday from spinal injuries. Baltimore authorities say they’re investigating how the 25-year-old was hurt—a somewhat perverse notion, given that it was while he was in police custody, and hidden from public view, that he apparently suffered injury. How it happened remains unknown.
It’s even difficult to understand why officers arrested Gray in the first place. But with protesters taking to the streets of Baltimore since Gray’s death on Sunday, the incident falls into a line of highly publicized, fatal encounters between black men and the police. Meanwhile, on Tuesday, a reserve sheriff’s deputy in Tulsa, Continue reading →
One Year Anniversary Of Charleston, SC Church Shooting
Black History: Special Delivery!!
By Blackmail4u, June 17 2016
June 17 marks the one year anniversary when nine members of Mother Emmanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Carolina were murdered during a prayer meeting.
Dylan Roof was arrested for the shooting. He remains in police custody and could face the death penalty. Trial was originally set to start in July 2016 but was delayed until January 2017 to allow additional time for psychiatric evaluation of Dylan Roof.
The one year anniversary was recognized in Charleston honoring the life and legacy of the shooting victims. The one year anniversary reminds us that racism is alive and well in America.