PANAMANIAN SOCIETY OF the 1980s reflected the country’s unusual geographical position as a transit zone. Panama’s role as a crossing point had long subjected the isthmus to a variety of outside influences not typically associated with Central and South-America. The population included Asian, European, North American and Middle Eastern immigrants and their offspring, who came to Panama to take advantage of the commercial opportunities connected with the Panama Canal.
African Antilleans, descendants of African Caribbean laborers who worked on the construction of the canal, formed the largest single minority group; as English-speaking diverse group, they were set apart from the majority by both language and religion. Tribal Indians, often isolated from the larger society, constituted roughly 5 percent of the population in the 1980s. They were distinguished by language, their indigenous belief systems, and a variety of other cultural practices. Continue reading →
In 1519 the Spanish Governor Pedrarias the Cruel, moved his capital away from the debilitating climate and unfriendly AmerIndians of the Darién to a fishing village on the Pacific coast called Panama, meaning “plenty of fish.” It was resettled and until the end of the sixteenth century served as the Caribbean port for trans-isthmian traffic. A trail known as the Camino Real, or royal road, linked Panama and Nombre de Dios. Along this trail, traces of which can still be followed, gold from Peru was carried by muleback to Spanish galleons waiting on the Atlantic coast.
The increasing importance of the isthmus for transporting treasure and the delay and difficulties posed by the Camino Real inspired surveys ordered by the Spanish crown in the 1520s and 1530s to ascertain the feasibility of constructing a canal. The idea was finally abandoned Continue reading →
Origin myths among the Hausa claim that their founder, Bayajidda, came from the east in an effort to escape his father. He eventually came to Gaya, where he employed some blacksmiths to fashion a knife for him. With his knife he proceeded to Daura where he freed the people from the oppresive nature of a sacred snake who guarded their well and prevented them from getting water six days out of the week. The queen of Daura gave herself in marriage to Bayajidda to show her appreciation. She gave birth to seven healthy sons, each of whom ruled the seven city states that make up Hausaland. Continue reading →
“Hungry men have no respect for law, authority or human life.” – Marcus Garvey
Born in Jamaica, Marcus Garvey worked for the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he co-founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and African Communities League, dedicated to promoting African-Americans and resettlement in Africa. He promoted a separate black nation. Garvey advanced a Pan-African philosophy which inspired the movement known as Garveyism. Garvey would eventually inspire others, from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born on August 17, 1887, in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica. Marcus Garvey was the last of 11 children born to Marcus Garvey, Sr. and Sarah Jane Richards. His father was a stone mason, and his mother a domestic worker and farmer.
One Year Anniversary Of Charleston, SC Church Shooting
Black History: Special Delivery!!
By Blackmail4u, June 17 2016
June 17 marks the one year anniversary when nine members of Mother Emmanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Carolina were murdered during a prayer meeting.
Dylan Roof was arrested for the shooting. He remains in police custody and could face the death penalty. Trial was originally set to start in July 2016 but was delayed until January 2017 to allow additional time for psychiatric evaluation of Dylan Roof.
The one year anniversary was recognized in Charleston honoring the life and legacy of the shooting victims. The one year anniversary reminds us that racism is alive and well in America.
Mi mind, stuck in the school zone
as my people slow me up, with their foolish thougths
thinkin’ I think I’M BETTER THAN THEM when my
whole life has been so slow, like a snail with salt on his
back, My eyes continue to burn like, Cayenne Pep’R the
numbers continure to get higher, hotter like crawfish as
the southern waters run deep like the Mississippi, Continue reading →
40 Acres and a Mule: The Reparations for Slavery Debate Griffin Coop, Nori Henk, Cory Phillips, Theological Analysis Project STH TT 810, 2001
INTRODUCTION: Historical Background and Description
Slavery as a legal institution lasted for about 250 years up until the Emancipation Proclamation of 1865 and for another 100 years, African Americans were subjected to Jim Crow laws of which they were not seen as legally equal until 1965. Initially, reparations were to be paid by giving freed slaves 40 acres of land and a mule, but the bill was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson in 1869 after having passed in Congress. However, the issue was far from being put to rest.
One hundred years later in 1969, the Black Manifesto was published, demanding monetary compensation equaling $3 billion dollars from predominantly white places of worship (Catholic, Protestant and [other] Jews) depending on the predetermined amount that the National Black Economic Development Conference calculated. This request stemmed out of the Civil Rights Continue reading →